RNA-seq-based transcriptomic profiling revealed a strong downregulation of a number of immune-relevant genes as a consequence of the exposure to hyperinsulinemia. Interestingly, as an exception, ptpn6 appeared to be upregulated in insulin-resistant larvae. This immune regulator, which is also involved in inflammatory and infectious diseases, is therefore suggested to be a mediator of the metabolic switch between insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant states.
Marín-Juez R, Jong-Raadsen S, Yang S, Spaink HP. Hyperinsulinemia induces insulin resistance and immune suppression via Ptpn6/Shp1 in zebrafish. J Endocrinol. 2014 Aug;222(2):229-41. doi: 10.1530/JOE-14-0178. Epub 2014 Jun 5.
In this study, knockdown of glut12 is shown to impact the development of the embryonic heart resulting in abnormal valve formation. Moreover, glut12-deficient embryos also exhibited poor glycemic control. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of genes important in cardiac development and function as well as metabolic mediators. The results indicate that glut12 is an essential GLUT during early embryonic development
Jiménez-Amilburu V, Jong-Raadsen S, Bakkers J, Spaink HP, Marín-Juez R. GLUT12 deficiency during early development results in heart failure and a diabetic phenotype in zebrafish. J Endocrinol. 2015 Jan;224(1):1-15. doi: 10.1530/JOE-14-0539. Epub 2014 Oct 17.
In this study Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) zebrafish model was used. Overfed zebrafish were studied to analyze the modulation of the liver transcriptomic response and to examine how obesity and, in particular, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) affect the immune response against a powerful inflammatory stimulus such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Forn-Cuní G, Varela M, Fernández CM, Figueras A, Novoa B. J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov 4. pii: JOE-14-0398
To identify candidate genes associated with sepsis and tolerance, the effects of a LPS treatment or the combination of a lethal treatment preceded by the administration of a sublethal concentration of LPS, which results in a tolerized state, were studied. The sepsis/inflammation/tolerance processes in zebrafish were analyzed by comparing them with the same responses in mammals and similarities in gene expression profiles were determined.
Dios S, Balseiro P, Costa MM, Romero A, Boltaña S, Roher N, Mackenzie S, Figueras A, Novoa B. Zebrafish. 2014 Oct;11(5):421-33. doi: 10.1089/zeb.2014.0995. Epub 2014 Sep 2.
Results of two infection models, Mycobacterium marinum and Salmonella typhimurium, support the anti-bacterial function of the MPEG1/perforin-2 family and indicate that the intricate cross-regulation of the two mpeg1 copies aids the zebrafish host in combatting infection of various pathogens.
Benard EL, Racz PI, Rougeot J, Nezhinsky AE, Verbeek FJ, Spaink HP, Meijer AH. J Innate Immun. 2014 Sep 19.
One of the chapters (Mesureur and Vergunst) describes a protocol to study bacterial virulence in zebrafish embryos. The other chapter written by Rougeot et al describes a technique for RNA Sequencing of FACS-Sorted Immune Cell Populations from Zebrafish Infection Models to Identify Cell Specific Responses to Intracellular Pathogens.
Mesureur J, Vergunst AC. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1197:41-66. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1261-2_3.
Rougeot J, Zakrzewska A, Kanwal Z, Jansen HJ, Spaink HP, Meijer AH. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1197:261-74. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1261-2_15.
Authors highlight the role of control mechanisms in TLR signalling and focus on the comparisons with studies in common carp that is highly related to zebrafish and can complement immune studies in zebrafish.
Kanwal Z, Wiegertjes GF, Veneman WJ, Meijer AH, Spaink HP. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014 Sep;46(1):35-52.
Exploiting the conservation of synteny between human and zebrafish genomes, the authors identified ten members of the IFIT family in zebrafish and examined the induction of these genes in vitro and in vivo after interferon (IFN) administration and rhabdovirus challenge.
Varela M, Diaz-Rosales P, Pereiro P, Forn-Cuní G, Costa MM, Dios S, Romero A, Figueras A, Novoa B. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 20;9(6):e100015.
With this study the knowledge of the pathology generated by SVCV, as an example of hemorrhagic virus, was improved focusing on interactions between the virus and host cells at early stages of the infection in zebrafish larvae. Taking advantage of zebrafish transgenic lines, imaging techniques and, using morpholino-induced cell depletion, viral-induced pyroptosis and IL1β release were observed in macrophages at the single cell level.
Varela M, Romero A, Dios S, van der Vaart M, Figueras A, Meijer AH, Novoa B. J Virol. 2014 Aug 6. pii: JVI.02056-14.
Here, the authors studied the cellular response of zebrafish larvae when E. coli bacteria are injected into the notochord and described the effects. They propose infection of the notochord in zebrafish larvae as a new model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cartilage and bone inflammation.
Nguyen-Chi M, Phan QT, Gonzalez C, Dubremetz JF, Levraud JP, Lutfalla G. Dis Model Mech. 2014 Jul;7(7):871-82.